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    Laws of Nidda – A Concise Code of Jewish Law for Converts


    Since Gentiles are not bound by the laws of menstruation, a giyoret who had menstruated before her conversion does not have to wait the required seven clean days before (remarrying and) cohabitating with her husband.  However, a woman who converts while she is menstruating is rendered a nidda immediately upon her conversion.


    A giyoret calculates her veset from her pre-conversion cycle. This is because menstrual cycles are based purely on biological phenomena.


    Although a couple must normally wait a minimum of seven days between an accepted proposal or a betrothal and the actual marriage due to concern about any excessive desire [on her part], a converting married couple does not have to wait before marrying again in accordance with halacha.  This is because there is no concern about excessive desire.

    Michael Broyde – YD 120: IMMERSION OF UTENSILS


    A Jew must immerse in a mikveh, with a blessing, any metal and glass food utensils purchased from or through a Gentile. Thus, a convert who immersed and converted should also immerse their utensils with a blessing. Others disagree and rule that as utensils that have been the valid utensils of someone who is now Jewish, they do not require immersion. Although the first view makes more sense, a convert ought to immerse these utensils but without a blessing with God’s name, since a number of authorities rule that no immersion is needed. Alternatively, the convert should  purchase a utensil that requires immersion with a blessing and immerse all of their utensils at the same time. Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef proposes a further compromise: metal utensils, which require immersion as a matter of biblical law, should be immersed without a blessing while glass utensils, which require immersion only as a matter of rabbinic law, need not be immersed.

    The most logical explanation of the view that one need not immerse utensils upon conversion is found in the writings of Rabbi Asher Weiss who presents two competing arguments in favor of non-immersion of utensils.

    First, however, he concedes that the most halachic authorities agree that immersion is required.  He states:

    In truth, I repeat that I know that most great and wonderful halachic authorities agree that a convert needs to immerse his untensils.  Such I heard from the lips of Rabbi Yosef Shalom Elyashiv shlita, and Rabbi Chaim Kanefsky shlita and such is written in Shevat haLevi (4:92) and Teshuvot Vehanhagot (1:249) who all state that the convert immerses with a bracha; see there.

    Rabbi Weiss then notes his disagreement based on silent precedent:

    However. I have always felt in my heart, now and in the past, that since we have not seen this halacha cited in the rishonim and the poskim of the prior generations, we have no better proof than this that a convert need not immerse his utensils.  This is not a case of a specific incident, rather this matter is relevant to every single convert who has ever converted.  From the silence of the decisors of previous generations, we see that they did not require such.  I have cited in many cases that which the Chazon Ish states (Shave’it Chapter 7, page 218) that in such cases that silence of the poskim is the “resolution superior to all other proofs.”

    Finally, Rabbi Weiss explains the substantive rule:

    As to the substance of the matter, it appears that the whole idea of immersing utensils is limited to cases where the utensil is transferred from owner to owner through a conveyance of title.  When the utensil transfers from the title of the Gentile to the title of the Jew, that is when the duty to immerse applies, as is simply noted by the Tur and Shulchan Aruch in YD 120:1 which states “One who purchases new utensils from Gentiles”.  Such is not the case for a convert after conversion whose ownership of his utensils has not been abrogated and the utensil and not been transferred from one person to another.  Thus there is no mitzvah to immerse the utensils [of a newly converted person].

    This approach  inclines one to rule (as Rabbi Weiss notes) that it is better for a convert to immerse untersils without a bracha.



    One who converts Purim morning after dawn but before sunrise is not obligated in the previous nighttime’s reading of Megillat Esther. However, the convert is obligated in the daytime megilla reading, as one was a Jew by the time the obligation became activated (sunrise).


    In spite of its reading being allowed all day, there is a dispute whether one who converts during Purim day is obligated to read the megilla.  This dispute is based on halacha’s assigning each person their proper Purim date (Adar 14 or Adar 15) based on their location at sunrise on Adar 14. Thus, although a convert should be obliged to read, both due to the fact that the reading obligation exists the entire day (as in entry OC 25) and that one can be assigned the default date of Adar 14, the convert should preferably avoid the question that year by hearing the megilla and its blessings, instead of reading it and blessing God directly.


    As regards someone who converts in Jerusalem over a three-day Purim weekend (Purim meshulash), when the city’s Adar 15 Shushan Purim falls out on Shabbat: It seems clear that if one converts on Sunday one is not obligated in any of the mitzvot of Purim since one missed the holiday date, and that if one converts on Friday one is obligated in all of them since one is Jewish by the time the holiday date begins.  If one converts on Shabbat during the daytime, a question similar to the one discussed in the previous paragraph arises, but the question has little relevance in practice since conversions are prohibited on Shabbat.


    One who converts on Purim afternoon, so that one’s obligation to read on Adar 14 is debated, and then goes to Jerusalem (the city that is indubitably obligated to celebrate Shushan Purim Adar 15) might be subject to special rules.


    A convert is obligated to read Megillat Esther with its blessings just as one is obligated in all mitzvot that commemorate national historical events. See earlier entries OC 47 and OC 60.

    An Excerpt – A Concise Code of Jewish Law for Converts 24


    A person from abroad who converts in Israel and is still residing in Israel observes only one day of Yom Tov holiday instead of the two days observed by the Jews of the diaspora. This is true even if he will be returning to live in the Diaspora.


    Fellow Jews have a special obligation to feast with converts on Yom Tov since holidays are a time when a convert is likely to feel most alone.


    One who converts on a fast day should start fasting from the beginning, even before the conversion, so that one can fulfill the obligation to be fasting to the appropriate degree at the time that one emerges from the mikva. This suggests to some authorities that one who ate before conversion need not bother fasting. However, inasmuch as eating and drinking on a fast day are sinful in and of themselves each time one does so even if one has already eaten or drunk, some rule that even the convert who ate earlier must join the fast after conversion. In any case, wine clearly should not be used when the convert is named on a fast day – unless it will be given to someone who is permitted to drink wine that day.


    There is some discussion whether one who converts on a minor fast day that due to Shabbat was postponed from its official date (“taanit nidche”) is required to fast with everyone else. This is because one could argue that a person that wasn’t Jewish on the official date of the fast never became obligated to fast. However, even if we put the complicated discussion of the status of a taanit nidche aside as beyond the scope of this work, the mitzva of “you shall love the convert” suggests that a convert should fast with everyone else. Since allowing the convert to observe as all do is generally what the convert wishes, it manifests love.


    When one converts on Sunday the 10th of Av (a Sunday on which the fast of 9th Av is observed instead of on Shabbat), there is even more reason to fast. This is because that Sunday the 10th of Av more than being a mere fast postponed (from its original date on which the convert had not yet been Jewish and obligated) might have the status of an actual fast date inasmuch as the 10th of Av was one of the days during which the Temple had been destroyed (and so the convert is undoubtedly obligated).



    Conversions may not be done on a Day of Rest (Shabbat or festivals).  Nonetheless, if one did convert on Shabbat, the consensus of the authorities in this after-the-fact case is that the convert is fully obligated to observe the remainder of Shabbat in spite of not having been obligated at its commencement.


    Even if one converted immediately after Shabbat, one is not obligated to bless over ending Shabbat (havdala) since one did not observe a Shabbat so as to need to end it.


    The Jerusalem Talmud notes that one who improperly converted on Shabbat morning after dawn “acquires a residency” that then interferes with the shared neighborhood (eruv) of permitted carrying that was set up before Shabbat. Thus, the convert would have to cancel their right to carry in the area in order to allow everyone else to carry in the area in the case of such an eruv.


    Readings from A Concise Code of Jewish Law for Converts 24


    If necessary, any Jew, including one converted, may recite Shema, pray, or bless in their vernacular.


    A convert recites all parts of the prayer service that relate to our ancestors’ Exodus from Egypt. Although a convert’s biological ancestors did not take part in the Exodus, a convert has become a part of the history of the Jewish people whom God has saved miraculously.


    A convert blesses God as eloheinu ve’elohei avoteinu. Although some early authorities discourage this as inaccurate, Rambam rules that a convert should say all such wordings and that is the common custom. See entry OC 47.


    A convert may pray for the recovery of their Gentile parents, one’s father and mother who brought them into this world. (Indeed, Jews may pray for the recovery of any Gentile. )


    A biological son of a kohen or Levi who converts is never classified as a kohen or Levi and does not receive their honors since he never inherits or receives his biological father’s status. Related to this is the rule that a convert does not inherit his father regardless of whether his father is Gentile or Jewish. See entry CM 283.

    Orach Chaim: Daily, Sabbath, and Holiday Laws – Variant Prayer Customs


    Since there are communal variations in prayer texts (nusach) and in other prayer- related customs, a convert may theoretically adopt those of any community that they wish as long as they remain loyal and consistent within this choice. However, if one converts in a place with a well-established, prayer text (nusach) and collective set of customs (minhagim), then the convert must adhere to those.  (Generally a convert should have thought about this issue prior to conversion and should have a community in mind to join with its customs.)


    When a person becomes Jewish, the convert is subject only to those commandments which are in effect at the time of the conversion. However, even if the convert has already performed such a commandment that day as a Gentile, the convert must repeat it in order to fulfill their obligation as a Jew. Therefore: inasmuch as the time frame for donning tefillin is the entire day, a ger who converts in the afternoon must don tefillin (again, if done already prior to the conversion).


    A convert can work as a sofer stam (religious scribe), and all their work is valid to the same degree as those of a born-Jew. There are those who claim that a convert who apostatizes out of fear of governmental authorities can write a valid sefer torah, tefillin, and mezuzot. Since the convert is rejecting the faith only in order to save their life, the convert is viewed as a full-fledged Jew. (Furthermore: there are many who claim that the rules regarding a convert who had reverted to their faith of birth are more lenient than for a born-Jew who had converted out of fear of death.)